Farzin Forooghian

Farzin Forooghian, MD, MSc, FRCSC

Clinical Associate Professor Dept. of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences


Basic Info


Bachelor of Science (University of British Columbia)

Doctor of Medicine (University of Alberta)

Internship, Internal Medicine (University of Toronto)

Residency, Ophthalmology (University of Toronto)

Master of Science (University of Toronto)

Fellowship, Medical Retina & Uveitis (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD)


Board Certification

Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

American Board of Ophthalmology



Dr. Forooghian is a native of Vancouver, and obtained his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of British Columbia. He attended medical school at the University of Alberta, where he graduated with Honors in Research. Following this, he went to the University of Toronto where he completed his residency in Ophthalmology and obtained a Master of Science degree in Immunology. He finished his training with a two-year fellowship in medical retina and uveitis at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

Dr. Forooghian has expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of age-related macular degeneration, retinal vein occlusions, uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal degenerations, retinal tears and holes, and central serous chorioretinopathy. He is actively involved in clinical and translational research, and has authored 70 publications in peer-reviewed journals. He has received numerous research awards, and been invited to speak at national and international conferences.



Currently Recruiting Clinical Trials

  1. A Two-Year, Randomized, Double-Masked, Multicenter, Three-Arm Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of RTH258 versus Aflibercept in Subjects with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
  1. A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Masked, Controlled Trial to Establish the Safety and Efficacy of Intravitreous Administration of Fovista (anti-PDGF-B pegylated aptamer) Administered in Combination with Either Avastin or Eylea Compared to Avastin or Eylea Monotherapy in Subjects with Subfoveal Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
  1. Treatment for Central-Involved Diabetic Macular Edema in Eyes with Very Good Visual Acuity (Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network)
  1. Peripheral Diabetic Retinopathy Lesions on Ultrawide-Field Fundus Images and Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Worsening Over Time (Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network)
  1. A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Masked, Controlled Trial to Establish the Safety and Efficacy of Intravitreous Administration of Fovista (anti-PDGF-B pegylated aptamer) Administered in Combination with Lucentis Compared to Lucentis Monotherapy in Subjects with Subfoveal Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration


  • Development of Epstein-Barr Virus Uveitis after Remission of Primary Vitreoretinal  Lymphoma. Chahal BS, Rasmussen S, White VA, Forooghian F. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2015 Aug 11.
  • Serous Index of Pigment Epithelial Detachments in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Predicts Response to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment. Young M, Forooghian F. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015 Jul 1;46(7):724-7.
  • Forooghian F. The Uncertainty Regarding Antiretinal Antibodies. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Apr 23.
  • Or C, Kirker AW and Forooghian F. Uveitic Crystalline Maculopathy. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2015 Feb 14; 5:5.
  • Young M, Fallah N and Forooghian F. Choroidal Degeneration in Birdshot Chorioretinopathy. Retina. 2015 Apr; 35(4): 798-802.
  • Xu J, Han S, Balaratnasingam C, Mammo Z, Wong KS, Lee S, Cua M, Young M, Kirker A, Albiani D, Forooghian F, Mackenzie P, Merkur A, Yu DY and Sarunic MV. Retinal Angiography with Real-Time Speckle Variance Optical Coherence Tomography. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015 Mar 2.
  • Forooghian F, Cao S, Cui J and Matsubara JA. The Enigma of Autoimmune Retinopathy. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2015 Spring; 55(2): 81-91.
  • Pakzad-Vaezi K, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Merkur AB, Kertes PJ, Eng KT, Fallah N and Forooghian F. A randomized study comparing the efficacy of bevacizumab and ranibizumab as pre-treatment for pars plana vitrectomy in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014 Nov-Dec; 45(6): 521-4.
  • Lee CS, Lee AY, Forooghian F, Bergstrom CS, Yan J and Yeh S. Fundus Autofluorescence Features in the Inflammatory Maculopathies. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 Sep 29; 8:2001-12.
  • Nathoo NA, Or C, Young M, Chui L, Fallah N, Kirker AW, Albiani DA, Merkur AB and Forooghian F. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Measurement of Drusen Load Predicts Development of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Oct;158(4):757-761
  • Or C and Forooghian F. Vitelliform Focal Choroidal Excavation. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014 May 30;45.
  • Or C, Kirker AW, Rasmussen S, Villa D, Gerrie AS and Forooghian F. Double-Hit Vitreoretinal Lymphoma. Can J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun;49(3):e73-6.
  • Yeh S, Forooghian F and Suhler EB. Implications of the Pacific Ocular Inflammation Uveitis Epidemiology Study. JAMA. 2014 May 14;311(18):1912-3.
  • Pepple KL, Van Gelder R and Forooghian F. Caveats about QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube testing for uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;157(4):752-3.
  • Pakzad-Vaezi K, Or C, Yeh S and Forooghian F. Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis and Management of Uveitis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb;49(1):18-29.
  • Young M, Chui L, Fallah N, Or C, Merkur AB, Kirker AW, Albiani DA and Forooghian F. Exacerbation of Choroidal and Retinal Pigment Epithelial Atrophy after Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Retina. 2014 Jul;34(7):1308-15.
  • Larkin KL, Saboo US, Comer GM, Forooghian F, Mackensen F, Merrill P, Sen HN, Singh A, Essex RW, Lake S, Lim LL, Vasconcelos-Santos DV, Foster CS, Wilson DJ and Smith JR. Use of Intravitreal Rituximab for Treatment of Vitreoretinal Lymphoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98(1):99-103.
  • Ding W, Young M, Bourgault S, Lee S, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Forooghian F, Sarunic MV, Merkur AB and Beg MF. Automatic Detection of Subretinal Fluid and Sub-Retinal Pigment Epithelium Fluid in Optical Coherence Tomography Images. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013;2013:7388-91.
  • Cao S, Ko A, Partanen M, Pakzad-Vaezi K, Merkur AB, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Wang A, Cui JZ, Forooghian F and Matsubara JA. Relationship Between Systemic Cytokines and Complement Factor H Y402H Polymorphism in Patients with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Dec;156(6):1176-83.
  • Forooghian F, Maberley D, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Merkur AB and Etminan M. Uveitis Risk Following Oral Fluoroquinolone Therapy: a Nested Case-Control Study. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2013 Oct;21(5):390-3.
  • Or C, Cui J, Matsubara J and Forooghian F. Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Bisphosphonates on Human Cultured Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun 13.
  • Or C, Collins DR, Merkur AB, Wang Y, Chan CC and Forooghian F. Intravenous Rituximab for the Treatment of Cancer-Associated Retinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;48(2):e35-8.
  • Or C, Press N and Forooghian F. Acute Retinal Necrosis Secondary to Cytomegalovirus Following Successful Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Anterior Uveitis in an Immunocompetent Adult. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;48(2):e18-20.
  • Wong WT, Dresner S, Forooghian F, Glaser T, Doss L, Zhou M, Cunningham D, Shimel K, Harrington M, Hammel K, Cukras CA, Ferris FL and Chew EY. Treatment of Geographic Atrophy with Subconjunctival Sirolimus: Results of a Phase I/II Clinical Trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr 26;54(4):2941-50.
  • Lee S, Fallah N, Forooghian F, Ko A, Pakzad-Vaezi K, Merkur AB, Kirker AW, Albiani DA, Young M, Sarunic MV and Beg MF. Comparative Analysis of Repeatability of Manual and Automated Choroidal Thickness Measurements in Non-Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr 23;54(4):2864-71.
  • Ko A, Cao S, Pakzad-Vaezi K, Brasher PM, Merkur AB, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Cui J, Matsubara J and Forooghian F. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Correlation Between Choroidal Thickness and Drusen Load in Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Retina. 2013 Mar 7.
  • Nicholson B, Noble J, Forooghian F and Meyerle CB. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment. Surv Ophthalmol. 2013 Mar;58(2):103-26.
  • Etminan M, Forooghian F, Brophy JM, Bird ST and Maberley D. Oral Fluoroquinolones and the Risk of Retinal Detachment. JAMA. 2012 Apr 4;307(13):1414-9.
  • Etminan M, Forooghian F and Maberley D. Inflammatory Ocular Adverse Events with the Use of Oral Bisphosphonates: a Retrospective Cohort Study. CMAJ. 2012 May 15;184(8):E431-4.
  • Butler AL, Fung AT, Merkur AB, Albiani DA and Forooghian F. Very Minimal Fluence Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2012 Feb;47(1):42-4.
  • Yeh S, Fahle G, Forooghian F, Faia LJ, Weichel ED, Stout JT, Flaxel CJ, Lauer AK, Sen HN and Nussenblatt RB. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Cased Ganciclovir Resistance Testing of Ocular Fluids for Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Jan;130(1):113-5.
  • Forooghian F, Merkur AB, White VA, Shen D and Chan CC. High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging. 2011 Sep 29;42:e97-9.
  • Krishnadev N, Forooghian F, Cukras C, Wong W, Saligan L, Chew EY, Nussenblatt R, Ferris F 3rd and Meyerle C. Subconjunctival Sirolimus in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov;249(11):1627-33.
  • Forooghian F, Meleth AD, Cukras C, Chew EY, Wong WT and Meyerle CB. Finasteride for Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Retina. 2011 Apr;31(4):766-71.
  • Forooghian F, Stetson PF, Gross NE and Meyerle CB. Quantitative Assessment of Photoreceptor Recovery in Atypical Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging. 2010 Nov-Dec;41 Suppl:S77-80.
  • Forooghian F, Gulati N and Jabs DA. Restoration of Retinal Architecture Following Systemic Immunosuppression in Birdshot Chorioretinopathy. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation. 2010 Dec; 18(6):470-1.
  • Gulati N, Forooghian F, Lieberman R and Jabs DA. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibition in Uveitis: A Systematic Review. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb;95(2):162-5
  • Panda P, Forooghian F, Goodglick T, Chan CC, Nussenblatt RB and Sen HN. Orbital Lymphoma Masquerading as Panuveitis. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation. 2010 Jun;18(3):181-3.
  • Yeh S, Forooghian F, Wong WT, Faia LJ, Cukras C, Lew JC, Weichel ED, Sen HN, Chew EY and Nussenblatt RB. Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging of the White Dot Syndromes. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2010 Jan;128(1):46-56.
  • Forooghian F, Kertes PJ, Eng KT, Agrón E and Chew EY. Alterations in the Intraocular Cytokine Milieu Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2010 May;51(5):2388-92.
  • Yeh S, Forooghian F, Faia LJ, Weichel ED, Wong WT, Sen HN, Chan-Kai BT, Witherspoon SR, Lauer AK, Chew EY and Nussenblatt RB. Fundus Autofluorescence Changes in Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. Retina. 2010 Jan;30(1):42-50.
  • Forooghian F, Stetson PF, Meyer SA, Chew EY, Wong WT, Cukras C, Meyerle CB and Ferris FL 3rd. Relationship between Photoreceptor Outer Segment Length and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema. Retina. 2010 Jan;30(1):63-70.
  • Forooghian F, Chew EY, Meyerle CB, Cukras C and Wong WT. Investigation of the Role of Neutralizing Antibodies against Bevacizumab as Mediators of Tachyphylaxis. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2009 Nov 7.
  • Forooghian F, Cukras C, Meyerle CB, Nussenblatt RB, Gottlieb CC, Chew EY and Wong WT. Gallium Scintigraphy in the Investigation of Retinal Inflammatory Vasculopathy. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2009 Oct 30.
  • Forooghian F, Agrón E, Clemons TE, Ferris FL 3rd and Chew EY. Visual Acuity Outcomes Following Cataract Surgery in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: AREDS Report No. 27. Ophthalmology. 2009 Nov;116(11):2093-100.
  • Cukras C, Wang YD, Meyerle CB, Forooghian F, Chew EY and Wong WT. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Decision Making in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Comparison of Time- vs. Spectral-Domain Devices. Eye. 2009 Aug 21.
  • Wong WT, Forooghian F, Majumdar Z, Bonner RF, Cunningham D and Chew EY. Fundus Autofluorescence in Type 2 Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia: Correlation with Optical Coherence Tomography and Microperimetry. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009 Oct;148(4):573-83.
  • Cao X, Bishop RJ, Forooghian F, Cho Y, Fariss RN and Chan CC. Autoimmune Retinopathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Histopathologic Features. Open Ophthalmology Journal. 2009 Apr 28;3:20-5.
  • Forooghian F, Cukras C, Meyerle CB, Chew EY and Wong WT. Tachyphylaxis Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Retina. 2009 Jun;29(6):723-31.
  • Yeh S, Li Z, Forooghian F, Hwang FS, Cunningham MA, Pantanelli, Lew JC, Wroblewski KK, Vitale S and Nussenblatt RB. CD4+Foxp3+ T-Regulatory Cells in Non-Infectious Uveitis. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2009 Apr;127(4):407-13.
  • Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ and Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic Foveal Atrophy: Clinical Features and Associations. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2009 Feb;127(2):179-86.
  • Noble K, Hollands H, Forooghian F, Yazdani A, Sharma S, Wong DT and Derzko-Dzulynsky L. Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Anterior Uveitis Investigation by Canadian Ophthalmologists. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008 Dec;43(6):652-7.
  • Lee TK, Forooghian F, Cukras C, Wong WT, Chew EY and Meyerle CB. Complementary Angiographic and Autofluorescence Findings in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum. International Ophthalmology. 2010 Feb;30(1):77-9.
  • Forooghian F, MacDonald IM, Heckenlively JR, Héon E, Gordon LK, Hooks JJ, Detrick B and Nussenblatt RB. The Need for Standardization of Antiretinal Antibody Detection and Measurement. American Journal of Ophthalmology.. 2008 Oct;146(4):489-95.
  • Forooghian F, Cukras C, Meyerle CB, Chew EY and Wong WT. Evaluation of Time Domain and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in the Measurement of Diabetic Macular Edema. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2008 Oct;49(10):4290-6.
  • Forooghian F, Cukras C and Chew EY. Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation Complicated by Pigment Epithelial Tear Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab Treatment. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008 Apr;43(2):246-8
  • Forooghian F and Das B. Anti-Angiogenic Effects of RNA Interference Targeting VEGF and HIF-1α. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007 Nov;144(5):761-768.
  • Forooghian F, Chew HF, Muni RH, Adamus G, Drake JM and Buncic JR. Paraneoplastic Optic Disc Oedema and Retinal Periphlebitis Associated with Pineal Germinoma. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007 Jul;91(7):985-6.
  • Forooghian F, Razavi R and Timms L. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Expression in Human RPE Cells. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007 Oct;91(10):1406-10.
  • Forooghian F, Cheung RK, Smith WC, O’Connor P and Dosch H-M. Enolase and Arrestin are Novel Nonmyelin Autoantigens in Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 2007 Jul;27(4):388-96.
  • Forooghian F, Adamus G, Sproule M, Westall C and O’Connor P. Enolase Autoantibodies d Retinal Function in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2007 Jan 12.
  • Forooghian F, Gupta R, Wong DT and Derzko-Dzulynsky L. Anterior Uveitis Investigation by Canadian Ophthalmologists: Insights from the Canadian National Uveitis Survey. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2006 Oct;41(5):576-83.
  • Forooghian F, Sproule M, Westall C, Gordon LK, Jirawuthiworavong G, Shimazaki K and O’Connor P. Electroretinographic Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis: Possible Role for Retinal Autoantibodies. Documenta Ophthalmologica. 2006 Sep;113(2):123-32.
  • Noble J, Forooghian F, Sproule M, Westall C and O’Connor P. Utility of the National Eye Institute VFQ-25 Questionnaire in a Heterogeneous Group of Multiple Sclerosis Patients. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2006 Sep;142(3):464-8.
  • Forooghian F, Assaad D and Dixon WS. Successful Conservative Management of Hydrops with Perforation in Pellucid Marginal Degeneration. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2006 Feb;41(1):74-7.
  • Forooghian F, Lam W-C, Hopkins J and Dhanda D. Bilateral Neuroretinitis with Peripapillary Serous Retinal Detachments in a Patient with HIV and HBV. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2005 Oct;123(10):1447-9.
  • Forooghian F, Kertes PJ and Aptsiauri N. Probable Autoimmune Retinopathy in a Patient with Multiple Sclerosis. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2003 Dec;38(7):593-7.
  • Hsiao CC, Su WN, Forooghian F, Bader S, Rempel J, HayGlass KT, Gilman A and Schultz KR. Evaluation for Synergistic Suppression of T cell Responses to Minor Histocompatibility Antigens by Chloroquine in Combination with Tacrolimus and a Rapamycin Derivative, SDZ-RAD. Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2002 Dec;30(12):905-13.
  • Forooghian F, Kojic L, Gu Q and Prasad SS. Identification of a Novel Truncated Isoform of trkB in the Kitten Primary Visual Cortex. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 2001 Aug;17(1):81-8.
  • Forooghian F, Kojic L, Gu Q, Wong CA and Prasad SS. Molecular Analysis of trkC in the Cat Visual Cortex. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 2000 Feb-Apr;14(1-2):39-51.
  • Pitner JB, Beyer WF, Venetta TM, Nycz C, Mitchell MJ, Harris SL, Marino-Albernas JR, Auzanneau FI, Forooghian F and Pinto BM. Bivalency and Epitope Specificity of a High Affinity IgG3 Monoclonal Antibody to the Streptococcus Group A Carbohydrate Antigen. Molecular Modeling of a FV Fragment. Carbohydrate Research. 2000 Jan 29;324(1):17-29.
  • Auzanneau FI, Forooghian F and Pinto BM. Efficient, Convergent Syntheses of Oligosaccharide Allyl Glycosides Corresponding to the Streptococcus Group A Cell-Wall Polysaccharide. Carbohydrate Research. 1996 Sep 23; 291:21-41.
Professional Activities

Professional Memberships

Macula Society

Canadian Ophthalmological Society

American Academy of Ophthalmology

American Society of Retina Specialists

Canadian Uveitis Society

American Uveitis Society

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