Retina & Vitreous


Dr. D. Albiani, Clinical Assistant Professor, Division Head
Dr. Ravinder Bhui, Clinical Instructor
Dr. L. Chui, Clinical Instructor
Dr. F. Forooghian, Clinical Associate Professor
Dr. A. Kirker, Clinical Assistant Professor
Dr. P. E. Ma, Clinical Professor
Dr. A. Maberley, Clinical Professor
Dr. Zaid Mammo, Clinical Assistant Professor
Dr. A. Merkur, Clinical Assistant Professor
Dr. Eduardo Navajas, Clinical Assistant Professor
Dr. K. P. Vaezi, Clinical Assistant Professor

Overview – Research & Teaching

The division of medical and surgical retina continues to focus on teaching, clinical research and patient care. During the past year, the division was involved in the teaching of medical students, residents and two post graduate vitreoretinal fellows. Retina rounds for residents are held every Monday during the academic year.

The UBC retina group conducts both industry-sponsored and investigator-initiated clinical trials. The group has 20 years of experience running randomized clinical trials and recent trials have been performed on exudative macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal venous occlusive disease, and psychophysical testing in retinal disease.

The UBC Department of Ophthalmology has continued its partnership with the Health Canada First Nations & Inuit Health Branch to run the BC First Nations on Reserve Mobile Diabetes Telemedicine Clinic. This program travels throughout BC First Nations communities to provide ophthalmic screening as well as diabetes testing and education.

The division has developed expertise in pediatric retina at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital and provides both medical and surgical ocular oncology services.

Publications in the last 5 years

Development of Epstein-Barr Virus Uveitis after Remission of Primary Vitreoretinal  Lymphoma. Chahal BS, Rasmussen S, White VA, Forooghian F. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2015 Aug 11.

Serous Index of Pigment Epithelial Detachments in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Predicts Response to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment. Young M, Forooghian F. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015 Jul 1;46(7):724-7.

Lam WC, Albiani DA, Yoganathan P, Chen JC, Kherani A, Maberley DA, Oliver A, Rabinovitch T, Sheidow TG, Tourville E, Wittenberg LA, Sigouin C, Baptiste DC. Real-world assessment of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (0.7 mg) in patients with macular edema: the CHROME study. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015 Jul 10;9:1255-68

Tan PE, Balaratnasingam C, Xu J, Mammo Z, Han SX, Mackenzie P, Kirker AW, Albiani D, Merkur AB, Sarunic MV, Yu DY.  Quantitative Comparison of Retinal Capillary Images Derived By Speckle Variance Optical Coherence Tomography With Histology.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jun 1;56(6):3989-96. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15879.

Chan G, Balaratnasingam C, Xu J, Mammo Z, Han S, Mackenzie P, Merkur A, Kirker A, Albiani D, Sarunic MV, Yu DY.  In vivo optical imaging of human retinal capillary networks using speckle variance optical coherence tomography with quantitative clinico-histological correlation.  Microvasc Res. 2015 Jul;100:32-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mvr.2015.04.006. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Forooghian F. The Uncertainty Regarding Antiretinal Antibodies. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Apr 23.

Or C, Kirker AW and Forooghian F. Uveitic Crystalline Maculopathy. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2015 Feb 14; 5:5.

Young M, Fallah N and Forooghian F. Choroidal Degeneration in Birdshot Chorioretinopathy. Retina. 2015 Apr; 35(4): 798-802.

Xu J, Han S, Balaratnasingam C, Mammo Z, Wong KS, Lee S, Cua M, Young M, Kirker A, Albiani D, Forooghian F, Mackenzie P, Merkur A, Yu DY and Sarunic MV. Retinal Angiography with Real-Time Speckle Variance Optical Coherence Tomography. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015 Mar 2.

Forooghian F, Cao S, Cui J and Matsubara JA. The Enigma of Autoimmune Retinopathy. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2015 Spring; 55(2): 81-91.

Pakzad-Vaezi K, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Merkur AB, Kertes PJ, Eng KT, Fallah N and Forooghian F. A randomized study comparing the efficacy of bevacizumab and ranibizumab as pre-treatment for pars plana vitrectomy in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014 Nov-Dec; 45(6): 521-4.

Lee CS, Lee AY, Forooghian F, Bergstrom CS, Yan J and Yeh S. Fundus Autofluorescence Features in the Inflammatory Maculopathies. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 Sep 29; 8:2001-12.

Nathoo NA, Or C, Young M, Chui L, Fallah N, Kirker AW, Albiani DA, Merkur AB and Forooghian F. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Measurement of Drusen Load Predicts Development of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Oct;158(4):757-761

Or C and Forooghian F. Vitelliform Focal Choroidal Excavation. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014 May 30;45.

Or C, Kirker AW, Rasmussen S, Villa D, Gerrie AS and Forooghian F. Double-Hit Vitreoretinal Lymphoma. Can J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun;49(3):e73-6.

Yeh S, Forooghian F and Suhler EB. Implications of the Pacific Ocular Inflammation Uveitis Epidemiology Study. JAMA. 2014 May 14;311(18):1912-3.

Pepple KL, Van Gelder R and Forooghian F. Caveats about QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube testing for uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;157(4):752-3.

Pakzad-Vaezi K, Or C, Yeh S and Forooghian F. Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis and Management of Uveitis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb;49(1):18-29.

Young M, Chui L, Fallah N, Or C, Merkur AB, Kirker AW, Albiani DA and Forooghian F. Exacerbation of Choroidal and Retinal Pigment Epithelial Atrophy after Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Retina. 2014 Jul;34(7):1308-15.

Larkin KL, Saboo US, Comer GM, Forooghian F, Mackensen F, Merrill P, Sen HN, Singh A, Essex RW, Lake S, Lim LL, Vasconcelos-Santos DV, Foster CS, Wilson DJ and Smith JR. Use of Intravitreal Rituximab for Treatment of Vitreoretinal Lymphoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98(1):99-103.

Ding W, Young M, Bourgault S, Lee S, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Forooghian F, Sarunic MV, Merkur AB and Beg MF. Automatic Detection of Subretinal Fluid and Sub-Retinal Pigment Epithelium Fluid in Optical Coherence Tomography Images. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013;2013:7388-91.

Cao S, Ko A, Partanen M, Pakzad-Vaezi K, Merkur AB, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Wang A, Cui JZ, Forooghian F and Matsubara JA. Relationship Between Systemic Cytokines and Complement Factor H Y402H Polymorphism in Patients with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Dec;156(6):1176-83.

Bourgault S, Aroichane M, Wittenberg LA, Lavallée A, Ma PE. Treatment of refractory uveitic macular edema with dexamethasone intravitreal implants in a pediatric patient with bilateral granulomatous idiopathic panuveitis: a case report. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2013 Oct 22;3(1):61.

Forooghian F, Maberley D, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Merkur AB and Etminan M. Uveitis Risk Following Oral Fluoroquinolone Therapy: a Nested Case-Control Study. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2013 Oct;21(5):390-3.

Yucel YH, Gupta N, Kagan DB, Khan AM, Navajas EV, Jin YP. Author reply: To PMID 23062649. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jul;120(7):e42-3.

Or C, Cui J, Matsubara J and Forooghian F. Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Bisphosphonates on Human Cultured Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun 13.

Bourgault S, Albiani D. Re: Split Ozurdex implant: a caution. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun;48(3):218-9.

Or C, Collins DR, Merkur AB, Wang Y, Chan CC and Forooghian F. Intravenous Rituximab for the Treatment of Cancer-Associated Retinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;48(2):e35-8.

Or C, Press N and Forooghian F. Acute Retinal Necrosis Secondary to Cytomegalovirus Following Successful Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Anterior Uveitis in an Immunocompetent Adult. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;48(2):e18-20.

Wong WT, Dresner S, Forooghian F, Glaser T, Doss L, Zhou M, Cunningham D, Shimel K, Harrington M, Hammel K, Cukras CA, Ferris FL and Chew EY. Treatment of Geographic Atrophy with Subconjunctival Sirolimus: Results of a Phase I/II Clinical Trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr 26;54(4):2941-50.

Lee S, Fallah N, Forooghian F, Ko A, Pakzad-Vaezi K, Merkur AB, Kirker AW, Albiani DA, Young M, Sarunic MV and Beg MF. Comparative Analysis of Repeatability of Manual and Automated Choroidal Thickness Measurements in Non-Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr 23;54(4):2864-71.

Pennock S, Kim D, Mukai S, Kuhnle M, Chun DW, Matsubara J, Cui J, Ma P, Maberley D, Samad A, Van Geest RJ, Oberstein SL, Schlingemann RO, Kazlauskas A. Ranibizumab is a potential prophylaxis for proliferative vitreoretinopathy, a nonangiogenic blinding disease. Am J Pathol. 2013 May;182(5):1659-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.01.052. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

Hua W, Cao S, Cui J, Maberley D, Matsubara J. Analysis of reasons for noncompliance with laser treatment in patients of diabetic retinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;48(2):88-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjo.2012.09.012.

Ko A, Cao S, Pakzad-Vaezi K, Brasher PM, Merkur AB, Albiani DA, Kirker AW, Cui J, Matsubara J and Forooghian F. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Correlation Between Choroidal Thickness and Drusen Load in Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Retina. 2013 Mar 7.

Nicholson B, Noble J, Forooghian F and Meyerle CB. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment. Surv Ophthalmol. 2013 Mar;58(2):103-26.

Khan AM, Kagan DB, Gupta N, Navajas EV, Jin YP, Yücel YH. Ciliary body lymphangiogenesis in uveal melanoma with and without extraocular extension. Ophthalmology. 2013 Feb;120(2):306-10

Wong PC, Fung AT, Gerrie AS, Moloney G, Maberley D, Rossman D, White V, Collins D, Coupland R, Chen LY. IgG4-Related Disease with Hypergammaglobulinemic Hyperviscosity and Retinopathy. Eur J Haematol. 2012 Dec 22. doi: 10.1111/ejh.12059.

Miguel AI, Henriques F, Azevedo LF, Loureiro AJ, Maberley DA. Systematic review of Purtscher’s and Purtscher-like retinopathies. Eye (Lond). 2013 Jan;27(1):1-13. doi: 10.1038/eye.2012.222. Epub 2012 Nov 23.

Lei H, Rheaume MA, Cui J, Mukai S, Maberley D, Samad A, Matsubara J, Kazlauskas A. A novel function of p53: a gatekeeper of retinal detachment. Am J Pathol. 2012 Sep;181(3):866-74.

Navajas EV, Costa RA, Calucci D, Hammoudi DS, Simpson ER, Altomare F. Multimodal fundus imaging in choroidal osteoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 May;153(5):890-895

Etminan M, Forooghian F, Brophy JM, Bird ST and Maberley D. Oral Fluoroquinolones and the Risk of Retinal Detachment. JAMA. 2012 Apr 4;307(13):1414-9.

Etminan M, Forooghian F and Maberley D. Inflammatory Ocular Adverse Events with the Use of Oral Bisphosphonates: a Retrospective Cohort Study. CMAJ. 2012 May 15;184(8):E431-4.

Hooper P, Boucher MC, Cruess A, Dawson KG, Delpero W, Greve M, Kozousek V, Lam WC, Maberley DA. Canadian Ophthalmological Society evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2012 Apr;47(2 Suppl):S1-30, S31-54.

Hooper P, Boucher MC, Cruess A, Dawson KG, Delpero W, Greve M, Kozousek V, Lam WC, Maberley DA. Canadian Ophthalmological Society Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Diabetic Retinopathy – executive summary. Canadian Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Practice Guideline Expert Committee. Can J Ophthalmol. 2012 Apr;47(2):91-6.

Butler AL, Fung AT, Merkur AB, Albiani DA and Forooghian F. Very Minimal Fluence Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2012 Feb;47(1):42-4.

Yeh S, Fahle G, Forooghian F, Faia LJ, Weichel ED, Stout JT, Flaxel CJ, Lauer AK, Sen HN and Nussenblatt RB. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Cased Ganciclovir Resistance Testing of Ocular Fluids for Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Jan;130(1):113-5.

Forooghian F, Merkur AB, White VA, Shen D and Chan CC. High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging. 2011 Sep 29;42:e97-9.

Krishnadev N, Forooghian F, Cukras C, Wong W, Saligan L, Chew EY, Nussenblatt R, Ferris F 3rd and Meyerle C. Subconjunctival Sirolimus in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov;249(11):1627-33.

Navajas EV, Simpson ER, Krema H, Hammoudi DS, Weisbrod D, Bernardini M, Altomare F.  Cancer-associated nummular loss of RPE: expanding the clinical spectrum of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2011 Oct 27;42:e103-6.

Forooghian F, Meleth AD, Cukras C, Chew EY, Wong WT and Meyerle CB. Finasteride for Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Retina. 2011 Apr;31(4):766-71.

Hammoudi DS, Mandelcorn E, Navajas EV, Mandelcorn M. A case of African crystalline maculopathy. Eye (Lond). 2011 Jun;25(6):825-7. doi: 10.1038/eye.2011.30. Epub 2011 Mar 4

Forooghian F, Stetson PF, Gross NE and Meyerle CB. Quantitative Assessment of Photoreceptor Recovery in Atypical Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging. 2010 Nov-Dec;41 Suppl:S77-80.

Forooghian F, Gulati N and Jabs DA. Restoration of Retinal Architecture Following Systemic Immunosuppression in Birdshot Chorioretinopathy. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation. 2010 Dec; 18(6):470-1.

Penha FM, Navajas EV, Bom Aggio F, Rodrigues EB, Farah ME. Fundus autofluorescence in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med. 2011;2011:807565. doi: 10.1155/2011/807565. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Cybulska P, Navajas EV, Altomare F, Bernardini MQ. Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium causing paraneoplastic retinopathy: case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:631929. doi: 10.1155/2011/631929. Epub 2011 Jul 28.

Gulati N, Forooghian F, Lieberman R and Jabs DA. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibition in Uveitis: A Systematic Review. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb;95(2):162-5

Panda P, Forooghian F, Goodglick T, Chan CC, Nussenblatt RB and Sen HN. Orbital Lymphoma Masquerading as Panuveitis. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation. 2010 Jun;18(3):181-3.

Tesha PE, Giavedoni LR, Berger AR, Altomare F, Chow DR, Navajas EV, Yoganathan P, Wong DT, Principe A. Subconjunctival lidocaine before laser treatment: a randomized trial. Ophthalmology. 2010 Sep;117(9):1810-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.01.036. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

Yeh S, Forooghian F, Wong WT, Faia LJ, Cukras C, Lew JC, Weichel ED, Sen HN, Chew EY and Nussenblatt RB. Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging of the White Dot Syndromes. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2010 Jan;128(1):46-56.

Forooghian F, Kertes PJ, Eng KT, Agrón E and Chew EY. Alterations in the Intraocular Cytokine Milieu Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2010 May;51(5):2388-92.

Yeh S, Forooghian F, Faia LJ, Weichel ED, Wong WT, Sen HN, Chan-Kai BT, Witherspoon SR, Lauer AK, Chew EY and Nussenblatt RB. Fundus Autofluorescence Changes in Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. Retina. 2010 Jan;30(1):42-50.

Forooghian F, Stetson PF, Meyer SA, Chew EY, Wong WT, Cukras C, Meyerle CB and Ferris FL 3rd. Relationship between Photoreceptor Outer Segment Length and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema. Retina. 2010 Jan;30(1):63-70.

Lei H, Velez G, Cui J, Samad A, Maberley D, Matsubara J, Kazlauskas A. N-acetylcysteine suppresses retinal detachment in an experimental model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2010 Jul;177(1):132-40. Epub 2010 May 20. [5.673, 0.834]

Merkur AB, Tawansy KA, Albiani DA, Bakar S.   Review of A Systematic Analysis of the Off-Label Use of Bevacizumab for Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity .   Evidence-Based Ophthalmology . 11(2):112-114, April 2010.

Yeung SN, Paton KE, Waite C, Maberley DA. Intravitreal bevacizumab for iris neovascularization following proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma. Can J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jun;45(3):269-73. [1.028,0.160]