Oculoplastics & Orbit


Dr. P.J. Dolman, Clinical Professor & Division Head
Dr. F. Buffam, Clinical Professor (emeritus)
Dr J. Carruthers, Clinical Professor
Dr P. Denton, Clinical Assistant Professor
Dr. H. Dhaliwal, Clinical Associate Professor
Dr. C. Pollock, Clinical Instructor
Dr. D. Rossman, Clinical Assistant Professor
Dr. V.A. Wong, Clinical Professor
Dr. V.T. Yin, Clinical Assistant Professor


Our division’s goals include excellent clinical care, teaching and research.

Our nine clinicians manage patients with diseases of the eyelids, lacrimal system and orbit from throughout the province and Western Canada.  Dedicated clinics and surgery are provided in lower mainland teaching hospitals including the Eye Care Centre and the Burnaby, Children’s, Lion’s Gate, Providence, Vancouver General and University Hospitals.  Drs Buffam, Denton, Dhaliwal, Pollock and Wong focus on oculoplastic diseases, Dr Carruthers on cosmetic oculoplastic procedures and Drs Dolman, Rossman and Yin on both oculoplastic and orbit disease.  Our division works collaboratively with other medical departments, including dermatology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, pathology, plastic surgery and rheumatology.

Teaching plays an integral role in the division with “hands on” teaching being a major strength for both residents and fellows. In excess of 1000 hours per year of teaching is provided by the members of the division in both clinical and surgical settings. Oculoplastic and orbit rounds are held for the residents and Fellows every fourth week. The division offers 1-2 fellowship training positions per year lasting 12 months, with special consideration for those returning to underserviced areas or academic programmes. Over 45 fellows from every continent have been trained in our unit over the past 30 years. Our teaching extends to other medical departments, with off-service rotations by plastic surgery and endocrinology residents. Several of our faculty are involved in national and international teaching through visiting professorships and lectures and also in volunteering their time to teach and perform surgery in underserviced areas around the world.

In the area of orbital research, our division has been involved with international collaborators in classifying and managing thyroid eye disease and orbital malignancies.  In oculoplastics, our contributions have included reviews of eyelid malignancies and several prospective studies on endonasal lacrimal surgery.  Several clinicopathologic studies have been conducted collaboratively with our Ocular Pathology colleagues.


Publications (last 4 years)

Carruthers JA

Naumann M, Carruthers A, Carruthers J et al.   Meta-Analysis of Neutralizing Antibody Conversion With OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX ® ) Across Multiple Indications.   Movement Disorders.2010; 25:2211-2218

A Carruthers,MD, Carruthers J   New developments in the use of botlulinum toxin. Access Dermatology Online Journal July 2009

Carruthers A, Carruthers J. A Single-Center, Dose-Comparison, Study of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A in Females With Upper Facial Rhytids: Assessing Patients’ Perception of Treatment Outcomes. J Drugs in Dermatology:October 20

Carruthers JDA, Carruthers A. Two Center Canadian Report on the Safety and Effectiveness of Evolence Breeze. J Drugs in Dermatology. Sept 2009,Vol8,Issue 9:830-834.

Carruthers JA, Carruthers JDA A Single Center Dose- Comparison Study of Botulinum Neurotoxin type A in Females with Upper Facial Rhytides: Assessing Patients’ Perception of Treatment Outcomes .J Drugs in Dermatology.   2009; 8: 924-929.

Carruthers A, Carruthers J Safety of Lidocaine 15% and Prilocaine 5% Topical Ointment Used as Local Anaesthesia for Intense Pulsed Light Treatment. Dermatol Surg 2010;36:1-8.

Carruthers A, Carruthers J et al.     Multicenter, Randomized Parallel Group Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of OnabotulinumtoxinA and Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers Alone and in Combination for Lower Facial Rejuvenation. Dermatologic Surgery. 2010;   36: 2121-2134.

Carruthers J, Carruthers A et al.   Multicenter randomized Parallel Group Study Onabotulinumtoxin A and Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers)Alone and in Combination for Lower Facial Rejuvenation:Satisfaction and Patient Reported Outcomes. Dermatologic Surgery.2010;l 36:2135-2145.

Carruthers A, Carruthers J .Editorial: Introduction to 2010 Special Issue on Botulinum Toxins. Dermatologic Surgery. 2010: 36: 2087

Carruthers J , Carruthers A Tezel A et al. Volumizing with a 20mg/ml smooth ,highly cohesive viscous hyaluronic acid filler and its role in Facial Rejuvenation therapy.Dermatologic Surgery 2010;36:1886-1892 .

Naumann, M, Carruthers A, Carruthers J et al    Meta-Analysis of Neutralizing Antibody Conversion with OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX1) Across Multiple Indications   Movement Disorders 2010;. 25:. 2211–2218

Carruthers A, Carruthers J et al.   OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment of Mild Glabellar Lines in Repose. Dermatol Surg 2010;36:2168–2171

Carruthers J, Rzany B et al.   Anatomic Guidelines for volume augmentation of the cheek and infraorbital hollow.   Dermatologic Surgery 2012; 1223-33

Flynn, T.C., Carruthers, A., Carruthers, J., Geister, T.L. et al, “Validated Assessment Scales for the Upper Face” Dermatol Surg, 2012;38: 309-319

Carruthers, J ., Flynn, T.C., Geister, T.L., Gortelmeyer, R., et al. and Carruthers. A., “Validated Assessment Scales for the Mid Face”, Dermatol Surg, 2012;38:320-332

Sattler, G., Carruthers, A., Carruthers, J ., et al.   Validated Assessment Scale for Neck Volume.    Dermatol Surg 2012;38:343-350

Narins RS, Carruthers J, Flynn TC, et al. Validated assessment scales for the lower face. Dermatol Surg. 2012;38:333-42.

Carruthers, A, Carruthers, J. 2012. Botulinum Toxin: Cosmetic and Medical Uses. Philadelphia: Elsevier.

Carruthers, J, Carruthers, A . 2012. Soft Tissue Augmentation. Philadelphia: Elsevier

Denton P

Codère F, Denton P, Corona J. Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy: a modified technique with preservatn of the nasal and lacrimal mucosa. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:161-4.

Dolman PJ

Wei LA, Ramey NA, … Dolman PJ, Lucarelli MJ. Orbital osteoma: clinical features and management options. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014 Mar-Apr;30(2):168-74

Rath S, Cowan BJ, Dolman PJ.  Cicatricial ectropion in grzybowski type of multiple eruptive keratoacanthomas. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014 Mar-Apr;30(2

Shams PN, Ma R, Pickles T, Rootman J, Dolman PJ.  Reduced risk of compressive optic neuropathy using orbital radiotherapy in patients with active thyroid eye disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb

Rath S, Connors JM, Dolman PJ, Rootman J, Rootman DB, White VA.  Comparison of American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM-based staging system (7th edition) and Ann Arbor classification for predicting outcome in ocular adnexal lymphoma. Orbit. 2014 Feb;33(1):23-8.

Avisar I, McNab AA, Dolman PJ, Patel B, Desousa JL, Selva D, Malhotra R.  Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction in patients with sarcoidosis. Orbit. 2013 Aug;32(4):225-30.

Tsang HH, Dolman PJ, Courtemanche DJ, Rassekh SR, Senger C, Lyons CJ.  Prenatal presentation of fronto-orbital congenital infantile fibrosarcoma: a clinicopathologic report. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Jul;131(7):965-7.

Czyz CN, Dolman PJ.  Ocular duction studies: statistical issues.  Author reply. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jan;120(1):223.

Roefs AM, Waters PJ, Moore GR, Dolman PJ.   Orbicularis oculi muscle biopsies for mitochondrial DNA analysis in suspected mitochondrial myopathy.   Br J Ophthalmol . 2012; 96:1296-9

Dolman PJ, Rath S.   Orbital radiotherapy for thyroid eye disease.   Curr Opin Ophthalmol . 2012; 23:427-32.

Rodriguez RC, Cornock E, White VA, Dolman PJ.   Eyelid blastomycosis in British Columbia. Can J Ophthalmol . 2012; 47

Dolman PJ.   Evaluating Graves’ orbitopathy   Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2012 Jun;26:229-48. Review.

Dolman PJ:   Assessing thyroid orbitopathy and the role of ITEDS:   chapter in Orbitopatia de Graves (SP), editors: Genol and Toledano), Madrid, 2012

Wiwatwongwana D, Esdaile JM, White VA, Dolman PJ.   Intravenous immunoglobulin for orbital Wegener’s granulomatosis.   Can J Ophthalmol . 2012;47:82-3..

Dolman PJ, Cahill K, Czyz CN, Douglas RS, Elner VM, et al.   Reliability of estimating ductions in thyroid eye disease: an International Thyroid Eye Disease Society multicenter study.   Ophthalmology . 2012 Feb;119(2):382-9.

Fayers T, Dolman PJ.   Validity and reliability of the TED-QOL: a new three-item questionnaire to assess quality of life in thyroid eye disease. Br J Ophthalmol . 2011 Dec;95(12):1670-4.

Dolman PJ.   Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy.   (chapter in Atlas of Oculoplastic Surgery, editor Lucarelli), Boston, 2011

Moloney G, Dolman PJ.   Eyelid deformities from pyodermatitis pyostomatitis vegetans. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol . 2011 Dec;39(9):910-1.

Prabhakaran VC, Cannon PS, McNab A, Davis G, O’Donnell B, Dolman PJ, Ghabrial R, Selva D.   Lesions mimicking lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma.   Br J Ophthalmol . 2010; 94:1509-12.

Wiwatwongwana D, White VA, Dolman PJ.   Two cases of periocular cutaneous angiosarcoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg . 2010 Sep-Oct;26(5):365-6.

Fayers T, Morris DS, Dolman PJ.   Vibration-assisted Anesthesia in Eyelid Surgery.   Ophthalmology 2010;   18

Dolman PJ.   Evisceration, enucleation, and alternatives to globe removal.   Can J Ophthalmol 2010; 45(1): 9 -10

Morris DS, Fayers T, Dolman PJ. Orbital Teratoma: Case Report and management review. JAAPOS.   2009 Dec; 13(6): 605-7

Dolman PJ.   Response to:   Amaurosis as a complication of non-endoscopic endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg . 2009 Sep-Oct;25(5):415-6.

Madge SN, Malhotra R, Desousa J, McNab A, O’Donnell B, Dolman P, Selva D.   Lacrimal Bypass Tube for Lacrimal Pump Failure Attributable to Facial Palsy. Am J Ophthalmol . 2009 Nov 5.

Douglas RS, Cahill K, Dolman PJ et al,   Development of criteria for evaluating clinical response in thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique, Arch Ophthalmol 2009; 127(9): 1155-60

Wiwatwongwana D, Berean KW, Dolman PJ, Rootman J, White VA. Unusual carcinomas of the lacrimal gland:   epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma and myoepithelial carcinoma.   Arch Ophthalmol . 2009 Aug;127(8):1054-6.

Bleyen I, Dolman PJ    The Wies Procedure for Management of Trichiasis or Cicatricial Entropion of the Upper or Lower Lid.   Br J Ophthalmol .2009; 93(12): 1612-5

Chuo JY, Dolman PJ, Ng TL, Buffam FV, White VA.   Clinical and Histopathologic Review of 18 explanted porous polyethylene implants.   Ophthalmology . 2009 Feb;116(2):349-54

Rossman D

Wong JC, Rossman D, Bressler B.   Dacryoadenitis, an extra-intestinal manifestation of Crohn’s disease.   Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105: 1904-6

Wong VA

Pfeffer G, Waters PJ, Maguire J, Vallance HD, Wong VA et al.   Levator palpebrae biopsy and diagnosis of progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Can J Neurol Sci . 2012 Jul;39(4):520-4.

Yin V

Esmaeli B, Yin VT, Hanna EY, Kies MS, William WN, Bell D, Frank SJ. Eye-sparing multidisciplinary approach for the management of lacrimal gland carcinoma. Head Neck 2016;38(8):1258-62. PMID:27027275

Baker MS, Yin VT, Ivan D, Allen RC, Carter KD, Esmaeli B, Shriver EM. Epidemiology and prognosis of primary periocular sweat gland carcinoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Mar 11 [Epub ahead of print] PMID:26974419

Tetzlaff M, Curry J, Yin V, Pattanaprichakul P, Manonukul J, Uiprasertkul M, Manyam G, Wani K, Aldape K, Zhang L, Prieto V, Esmaeli B. Differentially expressed miRNAs implicate distinct pathways in the pathogenesis of sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceous adenoma. JAMA Ophthalmol. [Online First July 23, 2015.] doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.2310

Ozgur OK, Yin V, Chou E, Ball S, Kies M, William WN, Migden M, Thuro BA, Esmaeli B. Hedgehog pathway inhibition for locally advanced periocular basal cell carcinoma and basal cell nevus syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 2015 Apr 30 [Epub ahead of print] PMID:25935097

Merritt H, Yin VT, Esmaeli B. Treatment Challenges with Benign Bony Tumors of the Orbit. Ocular Oncology Path 2015;1:111-120. PMID

Yin VT, Warneke C, Merritt H, Esmaeli B. Number of excisions required to obtain clear surgical margins and prognostic value of AJCC T category for patients with eyelid melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2014;98(12):1681-5. [Epub 2014 Jul 22]. PMID:25053759.

Yin VT, Sniegowski M, Esmaeli B. Indications and limitations of vismodegib for basal cell carcinoma. JAMA Ophthalmol 2014;132(7):905-6. PMID:25010179.

Sagili S, Yin V, Esmaeli B, O’Donnell B, Eckstein R, Malhotra R. Squamous cell carcinoma of the caruncle. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 May 8 [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:24814271.

Sniegowski M, Roberts D, Bakhoum M, Yin VT, Esmaeli B. Ocular Adnexal Lymphoma: Validation of American Joint Commitee on Cancer 7th Edition Staging Guidelines. British J Ophthalmol. 2014:98:1255-60. PMID:24759874.

Nasser QJ, Roth KG, Warneke, CL, Yin VT, El Sawy T, Esmaeli B. Impact of AJCC “T” designation on risk of regional lymph node meatastasis in patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid. British J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:498-501. PMID:24429279.

El-Sawy T, Bakhoum MF, Tetzlaff M, Nasser QJ, Prieto VG, Ivan D, Sniegowski M, Yin VT, Pan C, Durairaj V, Esmaeli B. Primary orbital melanoma in association with cellular blue nevus. Digital J Ophthalmol 2014 July 14. DOI:10.5693/djo.01.2014.02.001.

Sniegowski M, Yin V, Esmaeli B. RE: “American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) clinical classification predicts conjunctival melanoma outcome.”  Letter. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013; 29(4):326. PMID: 23839639.

Yin VT, Wiraska TA, Esmaeli B. Cutaneous eyelid neoplasm as toxicity of vemurafenib therapy. Ophthal Plast Recontr Surg. 2015;31(4):e112-5. [Epub ahead of print, 2014 May 14]. PMID:24833447.

Yin VT, Pfeiffer ML, Esmaeli B. Targeted therapy for orbital and periocular basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.  Ophthal Plast Recontr Surg 2013; 29(2):87-92. PMID: 23446297.

Pfeiffer ML, Yin VT, Esmaeli B.  Regional recurrence of sebaceous carcinoma of the caruncle after eleven years. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131(8):1091-2. [Epub ahead of print] 2013 Jun 13:1-2 doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.321.  PMID: 23765335

Pfeiffer ML, Yin VT, Bell D, Esmaeli B.  Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the lacrimal gland. Ophthalmol. 2013;120(4):873-873.e1. PMID: 23552085.

Yin VT, Weisbrod D, Eng K, Schwartz C, Kohly R, Mandelcorn E, Lam WC, Daneman N, Simor A, Kertes P. Antibiotic resistance of ocular flora after repeated use of topical antibiotics post intravitreal injection. Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr; 131(4):456-61. PMID: 23430175.

Yin VT, Merritt H, Esmaeli B. Eyelid and ocular surface carcinoma: Diagnosis and management. Clin Dermatol 2015;33(2):159-69. PMID:25704936

Yin VT, Chou E, Nakra T. Lower Lid and Midface Rejuvenation: Multi-discipline apporach. Oculoplastics: The transeyelid midface lift. Clin Plast Surg 2015;42(1):95-101. PMID:2544076

Yin VT, Merritt H, Esmaeli B. Targeting EGFR and Sonic Hedge Hog Pathways for Locally Advanced Eyelid and Periocular Carcinomas. World J Clin Cases. 2014; 2:432-8. PMID:25232546

Yin V, Esmaeli B.  Eyelid tumors : Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment and Biopsy for Eyelid and Conjunctival Malignancies. In: Clinical Ophthalmic Oncology – Eyelid and Conjunctival Tumours. 2nd. Ed(s) Pe’er J Singh AD. Springer 111-124, 2014.